Internationalization (i18n) your Struts application

A web application can be viewed by different languages. This post is about how to convert a web application into sinhala using Struts 2 framework. 
Apache Struts is a MVC framework for J2EE development. 
add the following jars to webcontent/WEB-INF/lib folder. These are the jars from struts and commons loggings.
Create two packages named org.apache.struts.register.action and org.apache.struts.register.model.Person in src folder. Then create class in the model folder.
package org.apache.struts.register.model;

public class Person {

private String firstName;
 private String lastName;
 private String email;
 private int age;

public String getFirstName() {
 return firstName;

public void setFirstName(String firstName) {
 this.firstName = firstName;

public String getLastName() {
 return lastName;

public void setLastName(String lastName) {
 this.lastName = lastName;

public String getEmail() {
 return email;

public void setEmail(String email) { = email;

public int getAge() {
 return age;

public void setAge(int age) {
 this.age = age;

public String toString() {
 return "First Name: " + getFirstName() + " Last Name:" + getLastName()
 + " Email: " + getEmail() + " Age: " + getAge();

Now add Register action into action package.

package org.apache.struts.register.action;

import org.apache.struts.register.model.Person;

import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionSupport;

public class Register extends ActionSupport {

private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

private Person personBean;

public String execute() throws Exception {

return SUCCESS;

public Person getPersonBean() {
 return personBean;

public void setPersonBean(Person personBean) {
 this.personBean = personBean;

public void validate() {
 if (personBean.getFirstName().length() == 0) {
 addFieldError("personBean.firstName", "First name is required");
 if (personBean.getEmail().length() == 0) {
 addFieldError("", "Email is required");
 if (personBean.getAge() < 18) {
 "Age is required and must be 18 or older");

Now create struts.xml in the src folder.

<!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?-->

 <constant name="struts.devMode" value="true"></constant>
 <package name="basicstruts2" extends="struts-default">
 <action name="index">

 <action name="hello" class="org.apache.struts.helloworld.action.HelloWorldAction" method="execute">
 <result name="success">/HelloWorld.jsp</result>
 <action name="strutdemo" class="org.apache.struts.helloworld.action.StrutsAction" method="carry">
 <result name="success">/StrutDemo.jsp</result>
 <action name="register" class="org.apache.struts.register.action.Register" method="execute">
 <result name="success">/thankyou.jsp</result>
 <result name="input">/register.jsp</result>
 <action name="registerInput" class="org.apache.struts.register.action.Register" method="input">
 <result name="input">/register.jsp</result>

Then add log4j.xml

<!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?-->

<log4j:configuration xmlns:log4j="">

 <appender name="STDOUT" class="org.apache.log4j.ConsoleAppender">
 <layout class="org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout">
 <param name="ConversionPattern" value="%d %-5p %c.%M:%L - %m%n">

 <!-- specify the logging level for loggers from other libraries -->
 <logger name="com.opensymphony">
 <level value="DEBUG"></level>

 <logger name="org.apache.struts2">
 <level value="DEBUG"></level>

 <!-- for all other loggers log only debug and above log messages -->
 <priority value="INFO"></priority>
 <appender-ref ref="STDOUT">


 and add properties files to action packages.
01. file. This is the default locale file.

personBean.firstName=First name
personBean.lastName=Last name
thankyou=Thank you for registering %{personBean.firstName}

02. file – which contains sinhala content.

welcome=u0DBDu0DD2u0DBAu0DCFu0DB4u0DAFu0DD2u0D82u0DA0u0DD2 u0DC0u0DB1u0DCAu0DB1
personBean.firstName=u0DB8u0DD4u0DBDu0DCA u0DB1u0DB8
personBean.age=u0DC0u0DBAu0DC3 u0DADu0DD0u0DB4u0DD1u0DBD

This file contains the relevant UNICODE characters for the sinhala content.

Then the index.jsp page.

<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"
<%@ taglib prefix="s" uri="/struts-tags" %>

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
<title>Basic Struts 2 Application - Welcome</title>

<h1>Welcome To Struts 2!</h1>
<p><a href="<s:url action='hello'></a>">Hello World</a></p>
<p><a href="<s:url action='strutdemo'></a>">Strut Demo</a></p>
<s:url action="strutdemo" var="helloLink">
 <s:param name="userName">Bruce&Phillips</s:param>
<p><a href="${helloLink}">Hello Bruce Phillipse</a></p>

<p>Get your own personal hello by submittng this form</p>
<s:form action="hello">
 <s:textfield name="userName" label="Your Name"></s:textfield>
 <s:submit value="Submit"></s:submit>
<s:url action="registerInput" var="registerInputLinkSI">
 <s:param name="request_locale">si</s:param>

<p><a href="${registerInputLinkSI}">Por favor, regístrese</a> para nuestro sorteo</p>

register.jsp page. In this page content type should be set to UTF-8.

<%@ taglib prefix="s" uri="/struts-tags" %>
 <%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html;charset=UTF-8" %>
 <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">

<h3><s:text name="welcome"></s:text></h3>
 <s:form action="register">

<s:textfield key="personBean.firstName"></s:textfield>
 <s:textfield key="personBean.lastName"></s:textfield>
 <s:textfield key=""></s:textfield>
 <s:textfield key="personBean.age"></s:textfield>
and finally web.xml file

<!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?-->
<web-app xmlns:xsi="" xmlns="" xmlns:web="" xsi:schemalocation="" id="WebApp_ID" version="3.0">


The output is 

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